Seed-born pathogens of small grains
Paraziti semena strnih žita
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Seed-borne diseases significantly reduce the yield and quality of the seed Although a large number of small grains parasites have been described thus far, only a few of them cause economically important damage under climate's conditions in Serbia. The most significant parasites are: Tilletia tritici Ustilago tritici, U. nuda, U. hordei, U. avenue, Pyrenophora graminea, P. teres, Cochliobolus sativus, Rhynchosporium secalis, P. tritici-repentis Leptosphaeria nodo-rum, Fusarium graminearum and Monographella nivalis. Wheat bunt is a very old and well-studied disease that is well known to science. It regained significance in Serbia in the last few years and now presents a problem for small grains production and marketing. Many different factors have contributed to the reappearance of this disease in our fields: sowing of uncertified seed, treatment with inefficient fungicides, nonapplication of cultural practice measures (inadequate pre-sowing preparation and untimely sowing), problems rel...ated to active ingredients and formulation unsatisfactory coating of the seed with the preparation, reduced fungicide efficacy (development of resistant pathotypes), and development of more virulent pathotypes in parasite population. The main preconditions for successful pathogen control are: selection of resistant varieties, strict adherence to crop rotation recommendation, regular checks by seed sanitary inspection, correct application of fertilizers and use of fungicides for seed treatment.
Daje se kratak pregled najznačajnijih parazita semena strnih žita. Pored značaja koji imaju u Srbiji, ukazano je na simptome, biologiju parazita i mogućnosti suzbijanja. Na kraju, nabrojani su paraziti semena od manjeg ekonomskog značaja, koji u pojedinim godinama mogu naneti značajne štete. Paraziti semena strnih žita koji nisu specifični za naše područje nisu navedeni.
Keywords:small grains / seed-borne diseases / strna žita / paraziti semena
Source:Biljni lekar, 2003, 31, 6, 557-564
- Univerzitet u Novom Sadu - Poljoprivredni fakultet - Departman za zaštitu bilja i životne sredine "dr Pavla Vukasovića", Novi Sad